Somalia

The UK works to implement the UK-Somalia strategy.

pdf Between 'Dirty Money' and 'Development Capital': Somali Money Transfer Infrastructure Under Global S

Title: Between 'Dirty Money' and 'Development Capital': Somali Money Transfer Infrastructure Under Global Scrutiny
Author: Anna Lindley
Institution: African Affairs Journal
Publication Date: 2009 
Keywords: Somalia

Relevance:

Following the collapse of the formal banking system, specialised money transmitters – known as xawilaad – have continued to enjoy strong demand from refugees, business communities, the diaspora and even aid agencies.  Drawing on primary research, this article examines the resilience and adaptive mechanisms of Somali money transfer infrastructure in navigating the threats posed by civil war at home, and by financial regulation from abroad.  The subject is relevant to those with an interest in understanding both the Somali economy and how the ‘remittance business’ operates in the region and beyond.

default Governance without Government in Somalia – Spoilers, State Building and the Politics

Title: Governance without Government in Somalia – Spoilers, State Building and the Politics
Author:
Ken Menkhaus
Institution: MIT Press Journals
Publication Date: 2007
Keywords: Somalia, Governance, Peacebuilding

Relevance:

This article assesses the challenges of state revival in Somalia, focusing in particular on the relationship between formal ‘state’ government and informal ‘organic’ governance systems which arise in the absence of state authority whether this arises in areas being beyond the reach or interest of the state. It describes relationships between the formal and informal governance systems, analyses different types and motivations of ‘spoilers’ and sets out a hypothesis for a “mediated state”.  The article is useful for those involved with or working on Somalia governance, political or social development issues. It is also relevant to those involved in peace building in other environments with weak formal government.

default No redress - Somalia’s forgotten minorities

Title: No redress - Somalia’s forgotten minorities
Author: Martin Hill
Institution: Minority Rights Group International
Publication Date: 2010
Keywords: Somalia, Human Rights

Relevance:

Somalia is usually spoken of in terms of it being a failed state where central government is no longer effective.  This report documents another aspect of the Somali crisis, namely the social and institutional forms of discrimination that the country’s minorities face, and explains the clan structure of the majorities that continues to exclude them.  While traditional practices are often romanticised as enjoying unique legitimacy due to their long standing, they commonly conflict with internationally accepted norms of human rights including gender equity. 

pdf Somalia dilemmas - changing security dynamics, but limited policy choices

Title: Somalia dilemmas - changing security dynamics, but limited policy choices
Author:
Solomon A. Dersso
Institution: Institute for Security Studies
Publication Date: 2010
Keywords: Somalia, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping

Relevance:

This paper examines recent shifts in the balance of power between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and armed opposition groups in Somalia, particularly Al-Shabaab, reflecting on current policy approaches toward peace-building and peacekeeping.  For political progress to be achieved, it concludes the international community needs to address Al-Shabaab much more seriously than it has done to date and not just be content with supporting the TFG. 

pdf Somalia’s Troubled Transition: Vision 2016 Revisited

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Somalias%20troubled%20transition%20-%20Vision%202016%20revisited.pdf

Title: Somalia’s Troubled Transition: Vision 2016 Revisited 

Author: Matt Bryden and Tres Thomas

Institution: Sahan Statebuilding Team 

Publication Date: 2015 

Keywords: Somalia, Governance

Relevance:

With the upcoming National Elections in Somalia in August 2016, and therefore the deadline for the Somali Government’s ‘Vision 2016’ (a framework to conduct constitutional review and implementation, reconciliation and completion of the federal system, and democratisation), this article was written in May 2015 in order to analyse the upcoming challenges. 

This article will be of specific interest to those with a regional interest in Eastern Africa and Somalia specifically, but also to those with a thematic interest in constitution building in fragile and conflict affected states.

default State-building, Counterterrorism, and Licensing Humanitarianism in Somalia

Title: State-building, Counterterrorism, and Licensing Humanitarianism in Somalia
Author: Mark Bradbury
Institution: Feinstein International Center
Publication Date: September 2010
Keywords: Somalia, Human Rights

Relevance:

This paper explores the implications of the current crises in Somalia for donor policy and relief operations.  It argues international state building and counterterrorism objectives in Somalia have seriously compromised the ability of the international community to assist and protect vulnerable populations.

pdf The Impact of War on Somali Men: An Inception Study

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LOGICA_The_Impact_of_War_on_Somali_Men.pdf

Title: The Impact of War on Somali Men: An Inception Study
Author: World Bank
Institution: Rift Valley Institute Research Project for LOGiCA Study Series
Publication Date: May, 2015
Keywords: Somalia, Gender, Conflict

Relevance

Stabilising and rebuilding Somalia remains a priority in UK foreign policy but in reality little is understood about the population and their need. In over 20 years of civil war this is the first male-orientated gender study on the consequences, supporting an existing gap in the literature around the representation of men’s voices and stories in Somalia.

The report aims to dispel the assumption that the Somali male is “inherently violent, prone to extremism, a threat to the West & their own society” (p3). War has radically changed Somalia, particularly around expected masculinities and this is not entirely reflected in current policy-thinking.  It is a key piece to unlocking a gender dialogue, where both men and women are being given a platform to amplify their voices around the impact of war on sexual politics.

The qualitative data on which this study is based was collected through ‘focus group discussions’, ‘individual interviews’, ‘critical thinking workshops’ conducted across 3 Somali territories, refugee camps in Dabaab and diaspora community in Nairobi. In total 400 men and 90 women participated between Dec 2013 and Apr 2014 (p8). This data provides a breadth of knowledge around the multiplicity of Somali male identities and their experiences within various conflict contexts.

pdf The Somali Conflict – the Role of External Actors

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DIIS_report_2009_03_Somali_conflict.pdf

Title: The Somali Conflict – the Role of External Actors
Author:
Bjorn Moller
Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
Publication Date: 2009
Keywords: Somalia, COIN, Governance

Relevance:

This article examines the claim there is a correlation between ‘interference’ by the international community in Somalia and deteriorating conditions for the local population.  It examines the different kinds of international involvement and discusses their impact and the reasons for that impact.  It is useful to those working on Somali political, development and governance issues, and those involved in the wider Horn of Africa region.

pdf Yemen and Somalia Terrorism, Shadow Networks and the Limitations of State-building - Chatham House

Title: Yemen and Somalia Terrorism, Shadow Networks and the Limitations of State-building - Chatham House
Author: Sally Healy and Ginny Gill
Institution: Chatham House
Publication Date: 2010
Keywords: Somalia, Yemen, Governance, Counter Insurgency

Relevance:

This paper looks at the challenges faced by Yemen and Somalia from insurgencies, terrorism, economic hardship and ineffective government, arguing that conventional counter-terrorist strategies are inadequate, and a new approach, based less on security assistance and more on support to political configurations resistant to extremism, is required.  It is useful to those working on Somalia or Yemen issues, particularly in the field of counter-terrorist policy, in addition to those involved in governance issues.

pdf “Here, Rape is Normal” A Five Point Plan to Curtail Sexual Violence in Somalia

Title: “Here, Rape is Normal” A Five Point Plan to Curtail Sexual Violence in Somalia
Authors: Samer Muscati and Tirana Hassan
Institution: Human Rights Watch
Publication Date: February, 2014
Keywords: Somalia, Human Rights, Gender

Relevance:

This report highlights the prevalence of sexual and other gender-based violence in Somalia. It suggests five action points for donor countries to address to improve the situation: physical prevention, emergency health services, access to justice, legal and policy reform, and promotion of women’s equality.  This report is useful for anyone working with services for women and girls in Somalia and other fragile states.

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